动画设计第2原则

大学计算机基础2018-10-15 08:59:19



Anticipation this is when a character prepares for an action to give the audience a clue - what is happening next as well as to make the action appear more realistic.


One example is when a character is about to jump before leaping into the air he has to prepare for the action by crouching down to build energy it's like a spring that coils up before releasing.


Look at this character jumping without any anticipation it looks very unrealistic because the energy to jump comes out of nowhere



Here's another example a punch to add power to the punch and communicate to the viewers that he is about to punch he reaches his arm back and then punches by contrast having no anticipation results in a very weak punch 


You'll see this in a lot of cartoons before running a character will wind up before taking off in the previous video about squash and stretch this face actually uses anticipation as well instead of immediately stretching up the face squashes first to anticipate the stretch and give it more power anticipation helps communicate actions to the audience by preparing them for the next action



This can happen in many ways if a character is about to take something out of their pocket they make their hand very visible and up in the air before going into the pocket 


Otherwise the audience might miss it and wonder how they got that object in the first place the most important thing is that the viewer notices the hand and the pocket so the character cannot be performing any competing actions 


Let's say that something is about to happen on the right, a character may prepare for that action by pointing their eyes and head to look in that direction leading the viewers to also look there it's important to make it as easy as possible for the audience to understand what's going on without having to watch it twice this can also be used to trick the audience -



 If you lead their eyes in one direction and then surprise them by having something happen on the other side of the screen taking anticipation of step further you can actually have multiple levels of anticipation 


Let's go back to our punch animation where the character winds up before punching this animation has one level of anticipation now look at this one the character is actually winding out for his wind-up by going forward then winding up and then before punching he throws his other arm back to further anticipate the punch this punch is very complex it's actually similar to what a baseball pitcher does when he's getting ready to throw the ball.


第二个动画制作的原理叫做预先动作,当一个人物做出一个动作时,会给观众的一个明晰的线索或提示---下一步将会发生什么,同时为了动画本身更加真实,符合我们的真实世界的场景。一个例子是当一个人物在跳跃到空中前将会做一个蹦跳准备动作。他得通过蹲下来建立向上能量的储备。这就像弹簧在释放前被挤压一样。如果角色没有任何先前的跳跃,这会看起来非常不真实,因为用来跳跃的能量大家不知道从何而来。同时另一个例子是:用拳猛击动作为了加强自身的能量和告知观众他将要用拳猛击,他会把手伸到后面,然后用拳猛击;相反,没有做好先前的准备动作将会导致非常弱的猛击。你将会在许多动画里看到这个:在人物奔跑前都会提前做好准备;人物起飞前,他会上发条。在第1原则里的挤压和拉伸的视频中,面部动作也用到了预先动作。面部动作的预先动作表现为先挤压而不是立刻上拉,这样才会产生一种心里的预期(如弹性,动能的产生)。预先动作会为下一个动作做准备与帮助观众沟通。这个在很多方面都能发生,如果一个人物将从他的口袋中拿出东西,手伸进口袋的预告动作得做出来,让下一个动作非常明显,然后他的手将会在空中举起。否则观众会错过这个动作,并且想知道当初他是怎样拿到那个物品的,最重要的事情是观众注意手和口袋,所以人物不能执行任何暴力行为。这样说明将要发生的事情是对的。

一个人会通过用他的眼睛和头引导观众朝那个方向看。同时,重要的是是观众在不需要看两遍的情况下了解下面将会发生的,它同时也被用来哄骗观众---如果你引导他们的眼睛在一个方向,然后通过在屏幕的另一边做些事情使他们惊叹。提前更进一步预料步骤,实际上你可以拥有多重的预料水平。让我们回到我们的冲压的动画,其中人物在猛击前做好预先准备,这个动画有一个等级的预料水平。现在看这个,这个人物其实是先向上弯曲手臂,伸出,然后结束动作。然后在用拳猛击前,它把另一只手臂往后一伸,提前为猛击动作准备,这个猛击行为很复杂。事实上,他与一个棒球投手在他已经准备号扔球的情况下是相类似的。


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